CAM

VOCABULARY


V O C A B U L A R Y
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ANTIVIRUS:
Antivirus software is a type of utility used for scanning and removing viruses from your computer. While many types of antivirus (or "anti-virus") programs exist, their primary purpose is to protect computers from viruses and remove any viruses that are found.
Most antivirus programs include both automatic and manual scanning capabilities. The automatic scan may check files that are downloaded from the Internet, discs that are inserted into the computer, and files that are created by software installers. The automatic scan may also scan the entire hard drive on a regular basis. The manual scan option allows you to scan individual files or your entire system whenever you feel it is necessary.
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DOMAIN:
While the term "domain" is often used synonymously with "domain name," it also has a definition specific to local networks.
A domain contains a group of computers that can be accessed and administered with a common set of rules. For example, a company may require all local computers to be networked within the same domain so that each computer can be seen from other computers within the domain or located from a central server. Setting up a domain may also block outside traffic from accessing computers within the network, which adds an extra level of security.
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FTP: File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host or to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet.
FTP is built on a client-server architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server.[1] FTP users may authenticate themselves using a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that hides (encrypts) the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS ("FTPS"). SSH File Transfer Protocol ("SFTP") is sometimes also used instead, but is technologically different.
The first FTP client applications were command-line applications developed before operating systems had graphical user interfaces, and are still shipped with most Windows, Unix, and Linux operating systems.[2][3] Dozens of FTP clients and automation utilities have since been developed for desktops, servers, mobile devices, and hardware, and FTP has been incorporated into hundreds of productivity applications, such as Web page editors.
FIREWALL:
The term "firewall" originally referred to fireproof walls that were designed to prevent the spread of fire from one room or building to the next. They were typically made of brick, steel, or another type of inflammable material that would effectively limit the spread of the fire. In the IT world, firewalls do not involve any fire or pyrotechnics, but they serve a similar purpose. A computer firewall limits the data that can pass through it and protects a networked server or client machine from damage by unauthorized users.
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HTML: HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the main markup language for displaying web pages and other information that can be displayed in a web browser. HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle brackets (like ), within the web page content. HTML tags most commonly come in pairs like although some tags, known as empty elements, are unpaired, for example . The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag (they are also called opening tags and closing tags). In between these tags web designers can add text, tags, comments and other types of text-based content.
HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol o HTTP (en español protocolo de transferencia de hipertexto) es el protocolo usado en cada transacción de la World Wide Web. HTTP fue desarrollado por el World Wide Web Consortium y la Internet Engineering Task Force, colaboración que culminó en 1999 con la publicación de una serie de RFC, el más importante de ellos es el RFC 2616 que especifica la versión 1.1. HTTP define la sintaxis y la semántica que utilizan los elementos de software de la arquitectura web (clientes, servidores, proxies) para comunicarse. Es un protocolo orientado a transacciones y sigue el esquema petición-respuesta entre un cliente y un servidor. Al cliente que efectúa la petición (un navegador web o un spider) se lo conoce como "user agent" (agente del usuario). A la información transmitida se la llama recurso y se la identifica mediante un localizador uniforme de recursos (URL). Los recursos pueden ser archivos, el resultado de la ejecución de un programa, una consulta a una base de datos, la traducción automática de un documento, etc.

HTTP es un protocolo sin estado, es decir, que no guarda ninguna información sobre conexiones anteriores. El desarrollo de aplicaciones web necesita frecuentemente mantener estado. Para esto se usan las cookies, que es información que un servidor puede almacenar en el sistema cliente. Esto le permite a las aplicaciones web instituir la noción de "sesión", y también permite rastrear usuarios ya que las cookies pueden guardarse en el cliente por tiempo indeterminado.
HYPERLINK:
A hyperlink is a word, phrase, or image that you can click on to jump to a new document or a new section within the current document. Hyperlinks are found in nearly all Web pages, allowing users to click their way from page to page. Text hyperlinks are often blue and underlined, but don't have to be. When you move the cursor over a hyperlink, whether it is text or an image, the arrow should change to a small hand pointing at the link. When you click it, a new page or place in the current page will open.
HOST:
This is a computer that acts as a server for other computers on a network. It can be a Web server, an e-mail server, an FTP server, etc. For example, a Web host is what provides the content of Web pages to the computers that access it. A host is also known as the mother computer. Well, not really, I just made that up.
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IP:
Also known as an "IP number" or simply an "IP," this is a code made up of numbers separated by three dots that identifies a particular computer on the Internet. Every computer, whether it be a Web server or the computer you're using right now, requires an IP address to connect to the Internet. IP addresses consist of four sets of numbers from 0 to 255, separated by three dots. For example "66.72.98.236" or "216.239.115.148". Your Internet Service Provider (ISP), will assign you either a static IP address (which is always the same) or a dynamic IP address, (which changes everytime you log on). ISPs typically assign dial-up users a dynamic IP address each time they sign on because it reduces the number of IP addresses they must register. However, if you connect to the Internet through a network or broadband connection, it is more likely that you have a static IP address.
INTERNET:
Believe it or not, the Internet was created way back in 1969, during the Cold War, by the United States military. It was meant to be a "nuke-proof" communications network. Today, the Internet spreads across the globe and consists of countless networks and computers, allowing millions of people to share information. Data that travels long distances on the Internet is transferred on huge lines known collectively as the Internet backbone. The Internet is now maintained by the major Internet service providers such as MCI Worldcom, Sprint, GTE, ANS, and UUNET. Because these providers make huge amounts of revenue off the Internet, they are motivated to maintain consistent and fast connections which benefits everyday Internet users like you and me.
Many people think the Internet and the World Wide Web are the same thing. They're not! The World Wide Web is what you are browsing right now. It is one of the many features of the Internet. E-mail, FTP, and Instant Messaging are also features of the Internet.
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JAVA:
Java is a general-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented computer programming language that is specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere" (WORA), meaning that code that runs on one platform does not need to be recompiled to run on another. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode (class file) that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture. Java is, as of 2012, one of the most popular programming languages in use, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 10 million users.[10][11] Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since merged into Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them.
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NET:
The .NET framework is part of Windows and provides a controlled environment for developing and running applications. Programmers do not have to "reinvent the wheel" as the framework provides a rich library of APIs that applications can use. This library includes functions for GUI, accessing databases, communicating across networks and much more.
It also supports many different programming languages including C++ and C#. There is less of a need to choose a particular programming language because of the features it offers.
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POP-UP:
The term "pop-up" has two computer-related meanings. One refers to a window and the other is a type of menu.
1. Pop-Up Window A pop-up window is a type of window that opens without the user selecting "New Window" from a program's File menu. Pop-up windows are often generated by websites that include pop-up advertisements. These ads are produced with JavaScript code that is inserted into the HTML of a Web page. They typically appear when a user visits a page or closes a window. Some pop-up ads show up in front of the main window, while others show up behind the main browser window. Ads that appear behind open windows are also called "pop-under" ads.
Regardless of where pop-up advertisements appear on your screen, they can be pretty annoying. Fortunately, browser developers have realized this and most Web browsers now include an option to block pop-up windows. If you are noticing pop-up windows appear on your computer when your browser is not open, you may have an adware program running on your computer. The best solution to this problem is to run an anti-spyware program that will locate and remove the malware from your system.
2. Pop-Up Menu A pop-up menu is a type of menu that pops up on the screen when the user right-clicks a certain object or area. It can be also called a contextual menu since the menu options are relevant to where the user right-clicked on the screen. Pop-up menus provide quick access to common program functions and are used by most operating systems and applications.
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SCRIPTS:
A computer script is a list of commands that are executed by a certain program or scripting engine. Scripts may be used to automate processes on a local computer or to generate Web pages on the Web. For example, DOS scripts and VB Scripts may be used to run processes on Windows machines, while AppleScript scripts can automate tasks on Macintosh computers. ASP, JSP, and PHP scripts are often run on Web servers to generate dynamic Web page content.
SPAM:
Spam (shortened from spiced ham)[1] is a canned precooked meat product made by the Hormel Foods Corporation, first introduced in 1937. The labeled ingredients in the classic variety of Spam are chopped pork shoulder meat, with ham meat added, salt, water, modified potato starch as a binder, and sodium nitrite as a preservative. Spam's gelatinous glaze, or aspic, forms from the cooling of meat stock.[2] The product has become part of many jokes and urban legends about mystery meat, which has made it part of pop culture and folklore.[3] Through a Monty Python sketch, in which Spam is portrayed as ubiquitous and inescapable, its name has come to be given to electronic spam, especially spam email.[4]

In 2007, the seven billionth can of Spam was sold.[5]
SERVER:
A server is a computer that provides data to other computers. It may serve data to systems on a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN) over the Internet.
Many types of servers exist, including web servers, mail servers, and file servers. Each type runs software specific to the purpose of the server. For example, a Web server may run Apache HTTP Server or Microsoft IIS, which both provide access to websites over the Internet. A mail server may run a program like Exim or iMail, which provides SMTP services for sending and receiving email. A file server might use Samba or the operating system's built-in file sharing services to share files over a network.
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TCP/IP: Stands for "Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol." These two protocols were developed in the early days of the Internet by the U.S. military. The purpose was to allow computers to communicate over long distance networks. The TCP part has to do with the verifying delivery of the packets. The IP part refers to the moving of data packets between nodes. TCP/IP has since then become the foundation of the Internet. Therefore, TCP/IP software is built into all major operating systems, such as Unix, Windows, and the Mac OS.
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URL:
Stands for "Uniform Resource Locator." A URL is the address of a specific Web site or file on the Internet. It cannot have spaces or certain other characters and uses forward slashes to denote different directories. Some examples of URLs are http://www.cnet.com/, http://web.mit.edu/, and ftp://info.apple.com/. As you can see, not all URLs begin with "http". The first part of a URL indicates what kind of resource it is addressing.
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VIRUS:
Like a biological virus, a computer virus is something you don't want to get. Computer viruses are small programs or scripts that can negatively affect the health of your computer. These malicious little programs can create files, move files, erase files, consume your computer's memory, and cause your computer not to function correctly. Some viruses can duplicate themselves, attach themselves to programs, and travel across networks. In fact opening an infected e-mail attachment is the most common way to get a virus.
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WEB: Web pages are what make up the World Wide Web. These documents are written in HTML (hypertext markup language) and are translated by your Web browser. Web pages can either be static or dynamic. Static pages show the same content each time they are viewed. Dynamic pages have content that can change each time they are accessed. These pages are typically written in scripting languages such as PHP, Perl, ASP, or JSP. The scripts in the pages run functions on the server that return things like the date and time, and database information. All the information is returned as HTML code, so when the page gets to your browser, all the browser has to do is translate the HTML.
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